What Is FCBGA (Flip-Chip Ball Grid Array) Package

FCBGA, short for Flip Chip Ball Grid Array, is a high-performance and moderately priced BGA packaging. In this packaging technology, small balls on the chip serve as connection points, and reliable electrical connections are established using controlled collapse chip connection (C4) technology. Due to its unique structural design and efficient interconnection method, FCBGA has become the preferred choice for many high-performance applications, particularly in the field of graphics acceleration chips, where it has become one of the predominant packaging formats.

FC-BGA package cross-section view

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Development of FCBGA Packaging Technology

The development of this technology dates back to the 1960s when it was initially introduced by IBM as a board-level packaging solution for large-scale computers. Over time, the technology underwent evolution, introducing the surface tension of molten bumps to support the chip and control the height of the bumps. FCBGA packaging gradually replaced traditional ceramic substrates in the field of flip-chip technology and became mainstream due to its outstanding performance and relatively low cost.

Currently, FCBGA packaging technology has found widespread application in Intel’s CPU product line, benefiting from Intel’s active promotion, gradually maturing, and standardizing. With the rapid development of areas such as artificial intelligence, 5G, and big data, the market demand for high-performance devices such as CPU, GPU, FPGA, and ASIC in network equipment has surged, marking the peak period for FCBGA.

However, despite the significant technological progress achieved by FCBGA packaging, it faces some challenges. The characteristics of multilayer and high-density increase the difficulty of manufacturing FCBGA substrates. Moreover, the production of this technology is mainly concentrated in Asia, with regions such as China, Japan, and South Korea being prominent in industrial technology. Leading companies in the industry, such as Samsung, ASE, Amkor, and JCET, hold a leading position in FCBGA packaging technology. In contrast, small enterprises face production challenges, leading to an imbalance in market supply and demand.

Advantages of FCBGA Packaging

Firstly, addressing EMC and EMI in circuits, traditional packaging connects the chip’s Bond Pad to the edge of the chip via metal wires, extending to the package’s pins or other circuit components. However, in high-frequency scenarios, excessively long pins can cause impedance effects, becoming obstacles in signal transmission routes. FCBGA uses small balls instead of traditional pins to connect the processor, effectively shortening the distance of external connections, reducing circuit inductance, and inter-component losses, thereby lowering the risk of electromagnetic interference.

Secondly, as electronic devices become increasingly miniaturized, the density of circuits and the number of I/O pins continue to increase. Traditional packaging technology typically arranges I/O leads around the perimeter of the chip, whereas FCBGA allows I/O leads to be arranged in an array on the chip’s surface, achieving a higher density of I/O layout and improving surface utilization. Under high-performance requirements, it can increase board surface utilization by 30% to 60%.

Most importantly, with the increasing number of internal components in chips, high-performance devices face challenges in heat dissipation. FCBGA, through its unique flip-chip form, allows the back of the chip to directly contact the air, achieving direct heat dissipation. Additionally, the substrate can enhance heat dissipation efficiency through metal layers or by adding metal heat sinks to the back of the chip, further enhancing heat dissipation performance, significantly improving the stability of the chip during high-speed operation.

FCBGA vs BGA

FCBGA and BGA are two commonly used IC packaging options. Below, TechSparks will provide a comprehensive comparison in terms of connection method, packaging structure, thermal performance, wiring density, and cost to help you make a more informed choice:

AspectBGAFCBGA
Connection MethodChip’s gold wires are connected to the metal pads on the packaging substrate using wire bonding technology.Flip chip technology is employed, with the chip’s metal contact points directly connected to solder ball pads on the packaging substrate.
Packaging StructureSolder balls are typically located on metal pads at the bottom of the package, and chip connection is achieved through the pads to the packaging substrate.Solder ball pads are located on the packaging substrate, and chip-to-substrate electrical connections are formed through solder ball pads.
Thermal PerformanceThe cavities formed between spherical connection points facilitate heat dissipation, making it suitable for high-power chips.Direct chip connection to the packaging substrate enables more efficient heat conduction and dissipation, contributing to lower chip temperatures and improved performance.
Wiring DensityComparatively lower than FCBGAFlip chip technology allows for a more compact electrical connection between the chip and the packaging substrate.
CostMore conventional and often more cost-effectiveSlightly higher in cost, but the performance and reliability enhancements are generally deemed acceptable.

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