Finger vein recognition is a highly advanced biometric technology employed primarily in the medical field for individual authentication and identification based on the unique characteristics of the finger vein network. This cutting-edge development utilizes near-infrared rays to analyze changes in blood flow. When near-infrared rays penetrate human tissue, the hemoglobin in venous blood vessels strongly absorbs these rays, resulting in the visualization of the venous blood vessel distribution pattern. These patterns are characterized by varying gray values, as they exhibit different structures due to the inherent randomness of elongation directions. This distinctiveness allows for determination of whether two vein images originate from the same finger. Furthermore, it has been observed that this technique is also applicable for the collection of finger vein images, thus adding to its versatility and practicality.
How Finger Vein Recognition System Works
This advanced and complex biometric technology leverages light propagation principles to authenticate and identify individuals based on their finger vein images. This advanced technology utilizes near-infrared rays to penetrate the finger, with a portion of the light being absorbed by the hemoglobin in the blood vessels. By capturing and analyzing the unique finger vein patterns, the system compares them with pre-registered vein patterns for identification purposes. The distinctive and stable nature of finger vein shapes, along with the individual variations in finger vein images, provides a robust foundation for accurate finger vein recognition in medical applications.
The workflow of a finger vein recognition system typically involves the following steps:
- Vein Scanning: Near-infrared LEDs emit light onto one side of the finger, and a camera captures the finger vein image after it passes through the finger.
- Image Processing: The collected images undergo feature extraction, focusing on extracting line structures and textures specific to finger veins.
- Feature Extraction and Matching: The extracted features are processed and encoded, enabling comparison and matching with pre-registered finger vein features.
- Identity Verification or Identification: Based on the matching results, the system determines the individual’s identity by either verifying their claimed identity or identifying them from a database of enrolled individuals.
The finger vein recognition algorithm employs texture tracking techniques to extract line structure information within the finger veins. This information is then utilized for individual recognition through line structure matching. This algorithm can be implemented in personal computer environments as well as embedded digital signal processor (DSP) platforms, ensuring its adaptability to different computing systems.
Features of Finger Vein Recognition Technology
- Non-contact identification: Finger vein recognition offers a non-contact identification method, where users simply place their fingers on the sensor without physical contact. This enhances convenience and eliminates the risk of germ transmission associated with contact-based biometric systems.
- High security: The finger vein pattern is highly distinctive and unique to each individual, making it difficult to counterfeit or steal. This significantly enhances the security and reliability of the identification process, ensuring accurate authentication.
- Technical challenges: This technology can achieve high-speed recognition within a matter of seconds, there may be technical challenges when using low-resolution cameras. These challenges can arise from the relative stability of vein structures and the need for clear image capture.
- High accuracy rate: The identification process involves collecting samples from within the human body, minimizing external environmental influences. This allows for accurate identification even under varying lighting conditions. Based on rigorous medical validation and mathematical statistics, the system demonstrates a low true rejection rate (FRR) of 0.01%, a low false acceptance rate (FAR) of 0.0001%, and a registration failure rate (FTE) of 0%.