What is an ESP32

Many electronics enthusiasts keen on DIY projects choose a suitable microcontroller as the core of their endeavors. A microcontroller is an integrated circuit chip that incorporates a processor core, memory, input/output (I/O) interfaces, timers, and other functionalities, widely used in automotive, home appliances, communication, and various other projects. With increasing demands, there is a wide range of microcontrollers available for enthusiasts to choose from, including popular options like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, STM32, ESP series, among others, each microcontroller type has its unique advantages and characteristics. Among them, the ESP series microcontrollers, known for their low cost and low power consumption, are highly favored in IoT (Internet of Things) and smart device projects. In this article, TechSparks will focus on introducing the ESP32, a powerful microcontroller, to help readers better understand and make full use of this versatile microcontroller.

esp32 introduction

What is ESP32

ESP32, developed by Espressif Systems, is a follow-up to the ESP8266, integrating Wi-Fi and Bluetooth functionalities and widely applied in various IoT and embedded system projects. Manufactured using TSMC’s 40-nanometer process, the ESP32 chip integrates antenna switches, RF modules, power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers, filters, and power management modules, resulting in a smaller overall footprint on the PCB while delivering outstanding RF performance, stability, and low power consumption.

Moreover, the chip features dual-core processors (main core and coprocessor core) and utilizes FreeRTOS, a real-time operating system dedicated to embedded systems, enabling multitasking and better management of task scheduling and synchronization, making it distinct from single-core processors like Arduino and Raspberry Pi and more suitable for applications requiring simultaneous processing of multiple tasks.

Furthermore, the development environment for ESP32 is open-source, supporting multiple programming languages and development tools such as Arduino IDE, MicroPython, and ESP-IDF, allowing enthusiasts to choose the development method that best suits their preferences and requirements, making the DIY process more flexible and seamless. Its open-source nature and abundant documentation resources enable beginners to quickly get started and use it, lowering the entry barrier for development.

ESP32 Development Board

When referring to “ESP32”, most of the time, it means the bare chip, but the term also encompasses development boards. For beginners, developing with the bare chip can be extremely challenging, making development boards a preferable option. An ESP32 development board is a complete circuit board containing the ESP32 chip and associated circuits, pins, peripherals, and connection interfaces, which is extremely helpful for learning, testing, and prototyping.

Among the many ESP32 development boards, the ESP32 DEVKIT DOIT is the most commonly chosen one for beginners, available in different versions and with varying numbers of available pins. Besides this, other models like ESP32-S3-DevKitC-1, ESP32-S3-DevKitM-1, ESP32-DevKitC, and ESP32-DevKitM-1 can also be considered.

When selecting an development board, several factors need to be considered:

  • Whether it has a USB-to-UART interface and voltage regulation circuitry for connecting the ESP32 to a computer for code uploading and powering.
  • Ensuring that the pin configuration and quantity of the development board meet your requirements for convenient wiring and access.
  • Checking for built-in features such as OLED displays, LoRa modules, SIM800 modules, cameras, etc., to meet the needs of your project.
  • For projects requiring remote connectivity, ensuring that the selected development board can add external antennas to expand Wi-Fi coverage.
  • For projects requiring battery power, it is recommended to choose a development board with a lithium-polymer battery connector or provide power to the ESP32 board through power pins.

Features of ESP32 board

Stability and Reliability

The stability of the ESP32 chip stems mainly from its powerful dual-core processors, both based on the Tensilica Xtensa LX6 architecture. The main core operates at up to 240MHz, responsible for executing primary application logic, user interfaces, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communications, and other high-performance tasks. The coprocessor core also operates at frequencies up to 160MHz, dedicated to handling Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communication protocols and other low-power tasks. The combination of these two cores provides ESP32 with enhanced computational capabilities.

The chip’s memory includes flash memory, RAM, and EEPROM, supporting partition schemes that allow different types of data to be stored in different flash and RAM partitions for better data management and firmware management. The main core and coprocessor core share the same memory space, enabling data and code sharing between the two cores, simplifying multitasking programming and improving data transfer efficiency, thereby enhancing system performance.

Moreover, ESP32 boards can operate in a temperature range from -40°C to +125°C and feature integrated self-calibration circuits that dynamically adjust voltages, eliminating defects in external circuits and adapting to changes in external conditions. These features ensure the stability and reliability of ESP32 in various environments and applications.

Ultra-Low Power Consumption

For microcontrollers, power consumption is crucial, especially in embedded systems and portable devices requiring long-term operation, as the microcontroller’s power consumption directly affects the device’s battery life and performance. In terms of power consumption, ESP32 stands out due to its refined clock gating, power-saving modes, and dynamic voltage adjustments.

Firstly, ESP32 integrates a low-power RTC (Real-Time Clock) module, allowing the chip to transition into deep sleep mode when the main core does not need to execute high-performance tasks. In this mode, all non-essential circuits are turned off, but when awakened, the chip can immediately obtain timestamps or perform tasks related to time. This mode is highly effective for applications that require periodic wake-up to perform tasks like sensor data collection.

Additionally, ESP32 features an advanced power management unit that adjusts power settings according to application requirements, better managing the current and voltage of the power supply. It allows partitioning different functional units into different power domains, enabling selective power down of functional units for optimal power consumption and performance balance.

For projects requiring extremely low power consumption, optimizations can be made for the ESP32’s Wi-Fi module, or Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) mode can be utilized to limit power consumption during data transmission.


The ESP32 chip boasts a range of security features designed to protect devices and data from potential threats and attacks. Firstly, it supports encryption and security standards for Wi-Fi connections, including WEP, WPA/WPA2-PSK, and WPA3-Personal, to prevent unauthorized access and data leakage.

Furthermore, ESP32 features a built-in hardware encryption engine supporting common encryption algorithms such as AES, RSA, and SHA, which can be used to encrypt data storage, communication, and firmware upgrades to ensure data remains protected against unauthorized access and tampering.

Moreover, ESP32 supports secure boot functionality, which verifies the integrity and authenticity of the firmware uploaded to the device. Secure boot is typically combined with signed firmware, digital certificates, and secure storage to ensure that only trusted firmware can run on the device.

High Integration

The integration level of a microcontroller is crucial for performance, size, power consumption, and reliability. As a highly integrated microcontroller, ESP32 demonstrates excellent overall performance and multifunctionality.

Utilizing CMOS technology, ESP32 achieves a more compact and efficient system, enabling more functionalities within a smaller footprint. The single chip integrates RF and baseband power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers, filters, as well as memory, accelerators, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth modules. Additionally, it features GPIO pins supporting SPI interfaces, I2C interfaces, UART interfaces, PWM controllers, providing users with rich peripheral interfaces and expandable functionality.

ESP32 vs ESP8266 vs STM32

ArchitectureDual-core Tensilica LX6Single-core Tensilica L106Single-core ARM Cortex-M
FrequencyUp to 240 MHzUp to 160 MHzOptional up to 200 MHz
Memory520 KB SRAM, 4 MB Flash160 KB SRAM, 4 MB FlashOptional SRAM and Flash
Communication InterfacesWi-Fi, Bluetooth, EthernetWi-FiVarious interfaces such as SPI, I2C, UART
Low PowerSupports low-power modes and deep sleepLimited low-power featuresSupports low-power modes
CostRelatively high costLower costCost varies by model and features
ApplicationsIoT, Embedded Systems, Smart HomeIoT, Embedded Systems, Internet of ThingsEmbedded Systems, Industrial Control, Automation
Development EnvironmentArduino IDE, ESP-IDF, MicropythonArduino IDE, ESP8266 SDKSTM32CubeIDE, Keil, IAR
Community SupportWide developer community and technical supportMature community and technical supportRich community and technical support

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